SSRN Author: Farzaneh MehrparvarFarzaneh Mehrparvar SSRN Content
https://privwww.ssrn.com/author=4157112
https://privwww.ssrn.com/rss/en-usTue, 26 Jan 2021 01:17:53 GMTeditor@ssrn.com (Editor)Tue, 26 Jan 2021 01:17:53 GMTwebmaster@ssrn.com (WebMaster)SSRN RSS Generator 1.0New: How Does the Quantum Structure of Electromagnetic Waves Describe Dark Matter?Dark matter is a kind of matter that we cannot see directly. Scientists have detected dark matter by analyzing the relationship between mass and velocity of the stars in galaxies. The higher speed of the stars implies more mass in the galaxies. However, they cannot describe it and its behavior clearly. Here we show that faster conversion of the dark matters spectrum to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the reason why they are hidden. We found that observers out of the 72 light-years of dark matters do not receive their light. Hence, an emitter could be visible for nearby observers, while more distance observers might detect it as a dark matter.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3730715
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1984084.htmlMon, 25 Jan 2021 12:41:31 GMTNew: How Does Quantum Redshift Describe Quantum Cosmic Microwave BackgroundCosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a radiation that we receive from all directions of the space. Its spectrum is equal to the spectrum of the blackbody in 2.725 K. Most scientists believe that it is a radiant of the early universe. We show that Quantum Redshift can describe CMB spectrum without the Big bang and inflation theories. We found that electromagnetic waves lose their energy along the traveling time, hence their spectrum will be converted to the lower temperature until their spectrum reach to the CMB spectrum. We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for more sophisticated in modeling universe. Predicting age and size of the universe in a none expansional space is another usage of the Quantum CMB.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3730665
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1984072.htmlMon, 25 Jan 2021 12:11:27 GMTNew: Investigating the Relationship Between the Life Cycle of Electromagnetic Waves, Quantum Redshift, Quantum Flux, and LuminosityThe redshift, luminosity, and flux are important tools for investigating stars and galaxies. The reason for the shift in spectral lines and decreasing the frequency have been discussed in the last centuries. However, the Doppler effect, gravitational redshift, and expanding space cannot describe the universe. Quantum redshift is a new theory to describe decreasing the frequency of the electromagnetic waves in the distance travels. Here we explain the life cycle of the electromagnetic waves. Also, we introduce a relationship between the quantum redshift of the three points when the distance of one object is equal to the summation of the distances of the other objects. We obtain a novel equation between the flux and the redshift. Our results show that the real distances of the objects are less than the distances in the accelerated expansion space theory. We can use the quantum redshift for investigating cosmic microwave background (CMB), Big bang, and predicting the age and size of the ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3709519
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1965796.htmlFri, 27 Nov 2020 18:30:39 GMTNew: How Does the Quantum Structure of Electromagnetic Waves Describe Quantum Redshift?The paper introduces quantum redshift. By using the quantum structure of the electromagnetic waves, we can describe the redshift. Losing the quanta masses along the traveling in the space is the reason of the decreasing the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Recursive quantum redshift predict distance of the objects by calculating the z parameter of the waves since they have emitted. Non-recursive quantum redshift is a fast and good approximation of the recursive quantum redshift. The distances in the quantum redshift is less than the distances in the accelerated expansion space theory. The paper provides z parameter of distances between zero and 12 billion light years.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3699685
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1961670.htmlFri, 13 Nov 2020 16:28:59 GMTNew: How Quantum of the Mass, K Box, and Photon Make Light and Matter?The paper uses the quantum of the mass for obtaining the multidimensional mass-energy equation and compares it with the relativistic energy-momentum equation. We show that the mass and frequency of the particles depend on the counts of the quanta masses in the first dimension while the energy of the particles is equal to the counts of all quanta masses in all dimensions multiplied by k constant. The paper introduces the arrangement of the quanta masses in the multidimensional visual k boxes. The new multidimensional energy-momentum equation shows that by increasing the velocity, the energy of the particle increases, but its equation is different from the relativistic energy-momentum equation. Hence, the kinetic energy equation and total energy of the particles that are used in the past century are not correct.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3667603
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1944569.htmlThu, 24 Sep 2020 15:27:05 GMTNew: Comparing Multi-Dimensional Energy–Momentum Equation and Relativistic Energy– Momentum Equation, Which Equation Is Wrong?The paper compares the multi-dimensional energy-momentum equation with the relativistic energy-momentum equation. We show that the relativistic energy-momentum equation is wrong and unable to explain the mass-energy equivalence in the multi-dimensional real space. Bertozzi’s experiment is good evidence for showing the problem of the relativistic energy- momentum equation. Multi-dimensional energy-equation can explain the total energy of the particles in the Bertozzi’s experiment and explain the relationship between the mass-energy formula of the particles in the n-dimensional spacetime.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3656600
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1944566.htmlThu, 24 Sep 2020 15:22:35 GMTNew: Introducing New Equation for Total Energy, Potential Energy, and Kinetic Energy in the Multidimensional SpacetimeThe paper introduces the energy equation in a multi-dimensional spacetime. Firstly, we use a new relation between kinetic energy and potential energy. Secondly, we obtain total energy based on potential energy and kinetic energy. Thirdly, we present the relationship between the momentum and the kinetic energy, and Finally, we compare the proposed equation with the mass-energy and the energy-momentum equation.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3650944
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1944550.htmlThu, 24 Sep 2020 14:52:44 GMTNew: Is Einstein’s Special Relativity Wrong?The paper investigates physical parameters and the path of the movement of the particles in the spacetime and shows that special relativity is incomplete. The special relativity does not explain the correct relationship between the energy and momentum in the spacetime, so then the energy- momentum equation is incorrect. We present the relationship between the momentum and potential energy in all dimensions in spacetime and compare the extracted equations with the mass-energy equivalence. The potential energy of the three-dimensional particles is good evidence of the correctness of the multi-dimensional energy-momentum equation. For covering these problems, we suggest a new principle law to explain the behavior of the particle, path of the movement, and the relationship between the physical parameters in the different dimensions.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3650796
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1944542.htmlThu, 24 Sep 2020 14:42:14 GMTREVISION: Does Using Multi-Dimensional Energy-Momentum Equation Change the Kinetic Energy Formula?The paper presents the kinetic energy of the particles in the multi-dimensional spacetime. We have used multi-dimensional energy-momentum equation for obtaining a new kinetic energy equation. We introduce new relation between the potential energy and the kinetic energy in the multi- dimensional spacetime. Also, we present one-dimensional kinetic energy and compare it with Newtonian kinetic energy and relativistic kinetic energy. The advantage of the multi-dimensional kinetic energy equation is using at the higher speeds and quantum mechanics.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3637222
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1930383.htmlTue, 11 Aug 2020 08:17:11 GMTNew: Is It Possible to Obtain Multi-Dimensional Energy-Momentum Equation by Using Minkowski Spacetime?We use Generalized Minkowski spacetime and obtain a multi-dimensional energy equation in the spacetimes. We use potential energy and total energy as two components in the Makowski spacetime. We present a new multi-dimensional energy equation that relates the total energy of the multi-dimensional object to its rest mass. The multi-dimensional energy equation shows that at the speed of the light, the kinetic energy of the particle reaches the potential energy multiplied by the speed of the light. At the speed of the light, the kinetic energy will be converted to the potential energy, hence the potential energy in the higher dimension is c times of the potential energy in the previous dimension.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3637202
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1923614.htmlTue, 21 Jul 2020 15:44:56 GMTREVISION: Does Using Multi-Dimensional Energy-Momentum Equation Change the Kinetic Energy Formula?The paper presents the kinetic energy of the particles in the multi-dimensional spacetime. We have used multi-dimensional energy-momentum equation for obtaining a new kinetic energy equation. We introduce new relation between the potential energy and the kinetic energy in the multi- dimensional spacetime. Also, we present one-dimensional kinetic energy and compare it with Newtonian kinetic energy and relativistic kinetic energy. The advantage of the multi-dimensional kinetic energy equation is using at the higher speeds and quantum mechanics.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3637222
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1923612.htmlTue, 21 Jul 2020 15:43:54 GMTNew: Do Stars in a Spiral Galaxy Simulate 4-Dimensional Movement in a 3-Dimensional Space?The stars in the spiral galaxies move in such a way that they increase their distance from the center of the black hole and make a mathematical series. We purpose a mathematical model for predicting the path of the stars in the spiral galaxies. The complex dimensional model is a novel mathematical series for illustrating the relationship between 4-dimensional movement in a 3- dimensional space. We show that arms of spiral galaxies are the path of movement of stars when they try to keep their distance from the center of the galaxy in a 4-dimensional movement.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3613187
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1918970.htmlThu, 09 Jul 2020 10:28:35 GMTNew: Theory of Black Hole StructureWe propose a new structure of a black hole based on the vacuum. In our theory, there is no massive mass at the center of the black hole and the source of gamma rays in the black hole is space energy. Positrons make a wall around the source of the gamma rays and make two jets. Contact between gamma rays and free positrons of the disk makes photon ring. Annihilation between electrons and positrons make glows on the jets. We use ETA’s picture for showing electron symmetrical eruption.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3613195
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1918968.htmlThu, 09 Jul 2020 10:27:14 GMTNew: K Constant Shows a Mistake in Wavelength Equation in the Wave-Particle Duality and Presents a New FormulaWe use quantum of the mass for investigating the correctness of the equation of the wave-particle duality. We show that the equation of the wavelength of a massive object is not correct unless it moves in the speed of the light. According to the equations of the quantum of the mass, we rewrite the equation of the wave-particle duality.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3613198
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1918966.htmlThu, 09 Jul 2020 10:25:48 GMTNew: K Constant and EnergyWe use the quantum of the mass and its equations to present a new formula that relates the energy of a massive object to its wavelength. We use the energy-mass equation of Einstein and the mass- frequency equation of the quantum of the mass. The new equation uses k constant, speed of the object, and wavelength of the object for calculating the energy of the object. The existing equation just relates the energy of a photon to its wavelength.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3613201
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1918964.htmlThu, 09 Jul 2020 10:24:39 GMTREVISION: Where is Antimatter?Although matter and antimatter have equally produced in the universe, physicists cannot find too much antimatter. We show that the main part of the antimatter exists and have located in the disk of the black holes. A ring of the positrons is covered by a ring of the electrons, while both rings have trapped in a strong electric field. The high-density ring of the positrons makes a wall against the gamma-rays. Blocking the gamma-rays by a wall of the positrons makes a photon ring that would be a good sign for finding the exact location of the antimatter ring. The main part of the supermassive objects in the space have made of antimatter.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3588471
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1909526.htmlTue, 16 Jun 2020 08:58:37 GMTREVISION: Rankings of Countries Based on Rankings of UniversitiesAlthough many methods have been designed for ranking universities, there is no suitable system that focuses on the ranking of countries based on the performance of their universities. The overall ranking of the universities in a region can indicate the growth of interests in science among the people of that land. This paper introduces a novel ranking mechanism based on the rankings of universities. Firstly, we introduce and discuss two new rankings of countries, based on the rank of their universities. Secondly, we create rankings of countries according to the selected method, based on the top 12000 universities in webometrics.info (January 2012) and compare rankings of countries in 4 editions (January 2012 to July 2013). Firstly, we introduce two new methods of ranking countries based on their university rankings, Weighted Ranking (WR) and Average Ranking (AR). Secondly, we discuss how the introduced ranking systems, perform in ranking countries based on the two years of data. ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3585226
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1909525.htmlTue, 16 Jun 2020 08:58:19 GMTNew: K ConstantWe present k constant as the quantum of the mass. The total mass of each object is an integer multiple of the k constant. The k constant relates frequency and the mass of a particle (m= kv). The smallest mass is equal to the mass carry by a photon with frequency 1 Hz. Also, we present quantum of the angular momentum and calculate its value. In the k constant definition, a photon is a virtual box. Each virtual box can carry an enormous number of quanta mass.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3593865
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1904273.htmlWed, 03 Jun 2020 12:53:52 GMTREVISION: Rankings of Countries Based on Rankings of UniversitiesAlthough many methods have been designed for ranking universities, there is no suitable system that focuses on the ranking of countries based on the performance of their universities. The overall ranking of the universities in a region can indicate the growth of interests in science among the people of that land. This paper introduces a novel ranking mechanism based on the rankings of universities. Firstly, we introduce and discuss two new rankings of countries, based on the rank of their universities. Secondly, we create rankings of countries according to the selected method, based on the top 12000 universities in webometrics.info (January 2012) and compare rankings of countries in 4 editions (January 2012 to July 2013). Firstly, we introduce two new methods of ranking countries based on their university rankings, Weighted Ranking (WR) and Average Ranking (AR). Secondly, we discuss how the introduced ranking systems, perform in ranking countries based on the two years of data. ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3585226
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1903266.htmlMon, 01 Jun 2020 13:26:35 GMTREVISION: Where is Antimatter?Although matter and antimatter have equally produced in the universe, physicists cannot find too much antimatter. We show that the main part of the antimatter exists and have located in the disk of the black holes. A ring of the positrons is covered by a ring of the electrons, while both rings have trapped in a strong electric field. The high-density ring of the positrons makes a wall against the gamma-rays. Blocking the gamma-rays by a wall of the positrons makes a photon ring that would be a good sign for finding the exact location of the antimatter ring. The main part of the supermassive objects in the space have made of antimatter.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3588471
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1902140.htmlThu, 28 May 2020 10:58:49 GMT