SSRN Author: Malcolm MacleodMalcolm Macleod SSRN Content
https://privwww.ssrn.com/author=989411
https://privwww.ssrn.com/rss/en-usSat, 23 May 2020 01:19:51 GMTeditor@ssrn.com (Editor)Sat, 23 May 2020 01:19:51 GMTwebmaster@ssrn.com (WebMaster)SSRN RSS Generator 1.0New: The Sqrt of Planck Momentum and the Mathematical ElectronThe sqrt of Planck momentum, denoted here as Q, is attributed as a distinct Planck unit and is used to link the mass (gravity) constants with the charge (electric) constants. From these constants, formulas for a magnetic monopole and then an electron frequency in terms of magnetic monopoles and Planck time are derived. The electron frequency formula has units yet is unit-less suggesting that within the electron there is a ratio of units whereby they overlap and cancel (the electron is a mathematical object, units = 1). Consequently of the SI units (kg, m, s, A, K) only 2 are required as from these the rest may be derived. This then permits us to define the least precise constants $G, h, e, m_e, k_B$ in terms of the most precise $c, \mu_0$ (exact values), the fine structure constant $\alpha$ (10-11 digits) and the Rydberg constant $R$ (12-13 digits). Results are consistent with CODATA 2014.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3585466
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1900301.htmlFri, 22 May 2020 10:34:13 GMTREVISION: Planck unit quantum gravity (gravitons) for Simulation Hypothesis modelingDefined are gravitational formulas in terms of Planck units and units of \hbar c. Mass is not assigned as a constant property but is instead treated as a discrete event defined by units of Planck mass with gravity as an interaction between these units, the gravitational orbit as the sum of these mass-mass interactions and the gravitational coupling constant as a measure of the frequency of these interactions and not the magnitude of the gravitational force itself. Each particle that is in the mass-state (defined by a unit of Planck mass) per unit of Planck time is directly linked to every other particle also in the mass-state by a discrete unit of m_P v^2 r = \hbar c, the velocity of a gravitational orbit is summed from these individual v^2. As this approach presumes a digital time, it is suitable for use in programming Simulation Hypothesis models. As this link is responsible for the particle-particle interaction it is analogous to the graviton. Orbital angular momentum of the ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3444571
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1877619.htmlFri, 20 Mar 2020 08:59:03 GMTREVISION: Planck unit quantum gravity (gravitons) for Simulation Hypothesis modelingDefined are gravitational formulas in terms of Planck units and units of \hbar c. Mass is not assigned as a constant property but is instead treated as a discrete event defined by units of Planck mass with gravity as an interaction between these units, the gravitational orbit as the sum of these mass-mass interactions and the gravitational coupling constant as a measure of the frequency of these interactions and not the magnitude of the gravitational force itself. Each particle that is in the mass-state (defined by a unit of Planck mass) per unit of Planck time is directly linked to every other particle also in the mass-state by a discrete unit of m_P v^2 r = \hbar c, the velocity of a gravitational orbit is summed from these individual v^2. As this approach presumes a digital time, it is suitable for use in programming Simulation Hypothesis models. As this link is responsible for the particle-particle interaction it is analogous to the graviton. Orbital angular momentum of the ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3444571
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1875941.htmlMon, 16 Mar 2020 07:48:42 GMTREVISION: Planck Unit Quantum Gravity (Gravitons) for Simulation Hypothesis ModelingDefined are gravitational formulas in terms of Planck units and units of \hbar c. Mass is not assigned as a constant property but is instead treated as a discrete event defined by units of Planck mass with gravity as an interaction between these units, the gravitational orbit as the sum of these mass-mass interactions and the gravitational coupling constant as a measure of the frequency of these interactions and not the magnitude of the gravitational force itself. Each particle that is in the mass-state (defined by a unit of Planck mass) per unit of Planck time is directly linked to every other particle also in the mass-state by a discrete unit of m_P v^2 r = \hbar c, the velocity of a gravitational orbit is summed from these individual v^2. As this approach presumes a digital time, it is suitable for use in programming Simulation Hypothesis models. As this link is responsible for the particle-particle interaction it is analogous to the graviton. Orbital angular momentum of the ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3444571
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1875304.htmlThu, 12 Mar 2020 15:12:22 GMTUpdate: Programming Gravitational Orbitals (Gravitons) As Units of ħc in a Planck Unit Simulation HypothesisThe Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality is an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation. Here is described a method for programming gravity between macro objects in a Planck level simulation (where all events occur at unit Planck time). A continuous gravitational force between objects is replaced with discrete units of ħc (defined as gravitational orbitals or gravitons) that directly link the individual object particles with each other and measure in terms of orbital momentum and velocity. The orbital angular momentum of the planetary orbits derives from the sum of the planet-sun particle-particle orbital angular momentum irrespective of the angular momentum of the sun itself and particle-particle rotational angular momentum contributes to the planets rotational angular momentum. Particles oscillate between a wave-state to a Planck-time Planck-mass point-state (a Planck micro black-hole), gravitational interactions as interactions between these ...<br/><i>The Paper was removed</i>
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3444571
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1865964.htmlTue, 11 Feb 2020 17:55:23 GMTREVISION: Programming Physical Planck Units From a Mathematical Electron; a Simulation Hypothesis (Summary)The Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality, including the earth and the universe, is in fact an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation, and as such our reality is an illusion. Here is summarized a method for programming mass, length, time and charge (MLTA) units as mathematical (geometrical) objects that are indistinguishable from their corresponding physical structures (the Planck units). A dimensionless formula for a mathematical electron is proposed; f_e = 4π^2r^3 (r = 2^6 3 π^2 α Ω^5) where the fine structure constant α = 137.03599... and Ω = 2.00713494... are mathematical constants. From this formula the MLTA geometries can be derived as; M = (1), T = (2π), L = (2π^2Ω^2), A = (64π Ω)^3/α. As geometrical objects they are independent of any set of units and also of any numbering system. As they are a function of f_e they are not independent and so we can replace designations such as the SI units (kg, m, s, A) with a rule set that defines their ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=2531429
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1829563.htmlWed, 02 Oct 2019 08:08:51 GMTREVISION: Programming Gravitational Orbitals (Gravitons) As Units of ħc in a Planck Unit Simulation HypothesisThe Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality is an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation. Here is described a method for programming gravity between macro objects in a Planck level simulation (where all events occur at unit Planck time). A continuous gravitational force between objects is replaced with discrete units of ħc (defined as gravitational orbitals or gravitons) that directly link the individual object particles with each other and measure in terms of orbital momentum and velocity. The orbital angular momentum of the planetary orbits derives from the sum of the planet-sun particle-particle orbital angular momentum irrespective of the angular momentum of the sun itself and particle-particle rotational angular momentum contributes to the planets rotational angular momentum. Particles oscillate between a wave-state to a Planck-time Planck-mass point-state (a Planck micro black-hole), gravitational interactions as interactions between these ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3444571
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1829562.htmlWed, 02 Oct 2019 07:48:27 GMTREVISION: Programming Gravitational Orbitals (Gravitons) As Units of ħc in a Planck Unit Simulation HypothesisThe Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality is an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation. Here is described a method for programming gravity between macro objects in a Planck level simulation (where all events occur at unit Planck time). A continuous gravitational force between objects is replaced with discrete units of ħc (defined as gravitational orbitals or gravitons) that directly link the individual object particles with each other and measure in terms of orbital momentum and velocity. The orbital angular momentum of the planetary orbits derives from the sum of the planet-sun particle-particle orbital angular momentum irrespective of the angular momentum of the sun itself and particle-particle rotational angular momentum contributes to the planets rotational angular momentum. Particles oscillate between a wave-state to a Planck-time Planck-mass point-state (a Planck micro black-hole), gravitational interactions as interactions between these ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3444571
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1825287.htmlWed, 18 Sep 2019 01:09:28 GMTNew: Programming the Matrix via a Mathematical Electron, a Simulation Hypothesis OverviewThe full Simulation Hypothesis is the premise that the entire universe, inclusive of all life-forms, is an artificial reality that resembles a computer simulation and that ours would therefore be a perceived reality. The concept was popularized in the 1999 sci-fi film ‘The Matrix’. In this commentary we look at techniques for programming a Planck unit Matrix style simulation that operates at the Planck level, based on a mathematical electron model in which mass, length, time and charge are dimensionless geometrical objects. The objective of a realistic simulation is to design mathematical objects that would be indistinguishable from their respective physical structures, the mathematical universe hypothesis approach. Also massive computational resources will be required and this must be taken into consideration, especially when operating at the Planck level.
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3448416
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1824051.htmlSat, 14 Sep 2019 04:41:17 GMTNew: Programming Relativity As the Mathematics of Perspective in a Planck Unit Simulation HypothesisThe Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality is in fact an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation. Outlined here is a method for programming relativistic mass, space and time at the Planck level as applicable for use in Planck Universe-as-a-Simulation Hypothesis. For the virtual universe the model uses a 4-axis hyper-sphere that expands in incremental steps (the simulation clock-rate). Virtual particles that oscillate between an electric wave-state and a mass point-state are mapped within this hyper-sphere, the oscillation driven by this expansion. Particles are assigned an N-S axis which determines the direction in which they are pulled along by the expansion, thus an independent particle motion may be dispensed with. Only in the mass point-state do particles have fixed hyper-sphere co-ordinates. The rate of expansion translates to the speed of light and so in terms of the hyper-sphere co-ordinates all particles (and objects) travel at the speed of ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3334282
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1822180.htmlSat, 07 Sep 2019 13:06:25 GMTREVISION: Programming a Planck Black-hole Simulation Hypothesis Universe and the Cosmological ConstantThe Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality is an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation. Outlined here is a low computational cost method for programming cosmic microwave background parameters in Planck time Simulation Hypothesis Universe. The model initializes `micro Planck-size black-holes' as entities that embed the Planck units. For each incremental unit of Planck time, the universe expands by adding 1 micro black-hole, a dark energy is not required. The mass-space parameters increment linearly, the electric parameters in a sqrt-progression, thus for electric parameters the early black-hole transforms most rapidly. The velocity of expansion is constant and is the origin of the speed of light, the Hubble constant becomes a measure of the black-hole radius and the CMB radiation energy density correlates to the Casimir force. A peak frequency of 160.2GHz correlates to a 14.624 billion year old black-hole. The cosmological constant, being the age when ...
https://privwww.ssrn.com/abstract=3333513
https://privwww.ssrn.com/1795220.htmlSat, 08 Jun 2019 10:39:35 GMT