SSRN Author: Eric Reed NielsenEric Reed Nielsen SSRN Content
http://www.ssrn.com/author=903760
http://www.ssrn.com/rss/en-usThu, 21 Jan 2016 02:12:46 GMTeditor@ssrn.com (Editor)Thu, 21 Jan 2016 02:12:46 GMTwebmaster@ssrn.com (WebMaster)SSRN RSS Generator 1.0REVISION: Achievement Estimates and Deviations from Cardinal ComparabilityThis paper develops a general method for assessing the robustness of standard empirical methods measuring group differences in achievement to violations in the cardinal comparability of achievement test scores. The paper defines a distance measure over possible test scales and then constructs bounds for the bias that could result from using the observed rather than the true scale, given that the two are no more than a fixed distance from each other. This bounding methodology can be applied to estimators employing mean differences, as well as OLS and IV regression coefficients. Although the paper focuses on achievement, the methodology can be equally well applied to any situation in which there is uncertainty about the scale of the outcome under consideration. Finally, a simple empirical exercise suggests that estimated trends in black/white and high/low-income achievement inequality are extremely sensitive to minor rescalings of test scores, while cross-sectional estimates are quite ...
http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2597668
http://www.ssrn.com/1461968.htmlWed, 20 Jan 2016 05:44:52 GMTREVISION: Achievement Gap Estimates and Deviations from Cardinal ComparabilityAbstract. This paper assesses the sensitivity of standard empirical methods for measuring group differences in achievement to violations in the cardinal comparability of achievement test scores. The paper defines a distance measure over possible weighting functions (scalings) of test scores. It then constructs worst-case bounds for the bias in the estimated achievement gap (or achievement gap change) that could result from using the observed rather than the true test scale, given that the true and observed scales are no more than a fixed distance from each other. The worst-case weighting functions have simple, closed-form expressions consisting of achievement thresholds, flat regions in which test scores are uninformative, and regions in which the observed test scores are actually cardinally comparable. The paper next estimates these worst-case weighting functions for black/white and high-/low-income achievement gaps and gap changes using data from several commonly employed surveys. ...
http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2597668
http://www.ssrn.com/1408349.htmlTue, 30 Jun 2015 05:16:05 GMTNew: The Income-Achievement Gap and Adult Outcome InequalityThis paper discusses various methods for assessing group differences in academic achievement using only the ordinal content of achievement test scores. Researchers and policymakers frequently draw conclusions about achievement differences between various populations using methods that rely on the cardinal comparability of test scores. This paper shows that such methods can lead to erroneous conclusions in an important application: measuring changes over time in the achievement gap between youth from high- and low-income households. Commonly-employed, cardinal methods suggest that this "income-achievement gap" did not change between the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY) 1979 and 1997 surveys. In contrast, ordinal methods show that this gap narrowed substantially for reading achievement and may have narrowed for math achievement as well. In fact, any weighting scheme that places more value on higher test scores must conclude that the reading income-achievement gap decreased ...
http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2623627
http://www.ssrn.com/1407969.htmlSun, 28 Jun 2015 04:27:59 GMTNew: Achievement Gap Estimates and Deviations from Cardinal ComparabilityThis paper assesses the sensitivity of standard empirical methods for measuring group differences in achievement to violations in the cardinal comparability of achievement test scores. The paper defines a distance measure over possible weighting functions (scalings) of test scores. It then constructs worst-case bounds for the bias in the estimated achievement gap (or achievement gap change) that could result from using the observed rather than the true test scale, given that the true and observed scales are no more than a fixed distance from each other. The worst-case weighting functions have simple, closed-form expressions consisting of achievement thresholds, flat regions in which test scores are uninformative, and regions in which the observed test scores are actually cardinally comparable. The paper next estimates these worst-case weighting functions for black/white and high-/low-income achievement gaps and gap changes using data from several commonly employed surveys. The ...
http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2623642
http://www.ssrn.com/1407946.htmlSun, 28 Jun 2015 02:53:27 GMTREVISION: Achievement Gap Estimates and Deviations from Cardinal ComparabilityThis paper assesses the sensitivity of standard empirical methods for measuring group differences in achievement to violations in the cardinal comparability of achievement test scores. The paper defines a distance measure over possible weighting functions (scalings) of test scores. It then constructs worst-case bounds for the bias in the estimated achievement gap (or achievement gap change) that could result from using the observed rather than the true test scale, given that the true and observed scales are no more than a fixed distance from each other. The worst-case weighting functions have simple, closed-form expressions consisting of achievement thresholds, flat regions in which test scores are uninformative, and regions in which the observed test scores are actually cardinally comparable. The paper next estimates these worst-case weighting functions for black/white and high-/low-income achievement gaps and gap changes using data from several commonly employed surveys. The ...
http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2597668
http://www.ssrn.com/1391862.htmlFri, 24 Apr 2015 06:36:34 GMT