Welcome to the SSRN Support Page
Our Support Page is designed to help you find answers to Frequently Asked Questions. On this page you can view a specific topic, view our instructional videos, or browse our topic list.
- What is SSRN?
- What is SSRN's Objective?
- What is SSRN's Commitment to Authors and Readers?
- What are SSRN's specialized Subject Area Networks?
- Which publishers and institutions does SSRN work with?
- How do I contact SSRN?
- Do I need an account to use SSRN?
- What is the usage policy regarding personal information on the SSRN site?
- NEW! What are PlumX Metrics?
Submitting a Paper to the SSRN eLibrary
- How do I use my SSRN User Headquarters (HQ) account to submit a paper?
- Is my paper eligible for inclusion and public display in SSRN's eLibrary?
- How can I have my own paper included in the SSRN eLibrary?
- How can I submit a non-English paper?
- How can I create a PDF file?
- Is there a fee for a researcher to submit his/her paper to the site?
- Does the institution where the researcher is working need to subscribe to SSRN in order for him/her to be able to submit papers?
- Is my paper eligible for distribution in SSRN's eJournals?
- Is submission of a paper to SSRN tantamount to prior submissions by scholarly refereed journals?
- Does submission to SSRN restrict in any way what I can do with my paper?
- What do I need to know about Copyright Policies?
- What should I do if I suspect a publishing ethics violation, such as plagiarism, in a paper posted on SSRN?
- What should I do if I suspect a copyright violation in a paper posted on SSRN?
- How do I Revise my previously submitted paper?
- How does SSRN handle multiple versions of a paper? What is a Version Group?
- Can I include non-SSRN URLs in my submission to SSRN?
- How do I manage my Personal Information page?
- Does SSRN provide a DOI? (Digital Object Identifier)?
SSRN Web Usage
- Which Internet browsers does SSRN support?
- What are Cookies on SSRN?
- What is a Download? What is an Abstract View?
- What is RSS?
- What is the SSRN eLibrary?
- How do I SEARCH for a paper in the SSRN eLibrary?
- What is Full Text search (beta version)?
- What is "Search Within Results"?
- How do I find further information (including an abstract) about this paper?
- How do I obtain a copy of the whole article if I am interested?
- Can I read the full text of the paper online?
- Am I downloading the full text file from the SSRN site?
- How do I download from the abstract page, and what should I do if I have difficulty downloading a full text file?
- What is the charge for using the SSRN eLibrary?
- What are SSRN's "Top Papers", "Top Authors" and "Top Institutions"?
- What is a “SSRN Top Downloads” List?
- What is My Library?
- Where can I find Professional Announcements and Job Openings listings?
- Jobs and Announcements Pricing
- What is Eigenfactor®?
- How do I make a musical research submission?
1. What is the SSRN? ↑ back to top
SSRN is an open-access online preprint community providing valuable services to leading academic schools and government institutions. Specializing primarily in social sciences, including economics, law, corporate governance, and humanities, SSRN is branching out in to other science disciplines providing opportunities for scholars to post their early research, collaborate on theories and discoveries, and get credit for their ideas before peer reviewed publication.
SSRN is instrumental as a starting point for PhD students, professors, and institutional faculty to post early-stage research, prior to publication in academic journals.
SSRN provides the online database of early scholarly research – a permanent and searchable online library – always available, worldwide. We make it simple for authors to post their working papers and abstracts. Academics and researchers can browse the SSRN data library and upload their own papers free of charge. Majority of papers can be downloaded from SSRN free of charge. Metrics on author rankings at a glance.
To browse SSRN's eLibrary subject area networks, click here.
2. What is SSRN's Objective? ↑ back to top
SSRN's objective is to provide rapid worldwide distribution of research to authors and their readers and to facilitate communication among them at the lowest possible cost. In pursuit of this objective, we allow authors to upload papers without charge. And any paper an author uploads to SSRN is downloadable for free, worldwide. We allow publishers and other institutions to charge users for downloading papers while encouraging them to charge fees that are as low as possible. Our rule is that the price for such papers on SSRN must be equal to or below the lowest price that such papers are available anywhere on the web to non-subscribers. The vast majority of downloads of papers from the SSRN eLibrary are free.
3. What is SSRN's Commitment to Authors and Readers? ↑ back to top
SSRN is committed to providing authors and readers with the highest quality, most reliable services in the distribution of research. Authors who have contributed their research to SSRN have trusted us with their intellectual output. We are committed to fulfilling that trust. We are scholars, and we respect, above all, our authors' rights in their material. We have never and will never behave opportunistically with our authors' material. You can count on this from SSRN and from each of us that help SSRN perform on its commitments.
4. What are SSRN's specialized Subject Area Networks? ↑ back to top
Our global research networks offer an efficient way to keep-up-to-date on the latest research and connect with relevant peers. Including preprints in the SSRN community is a first step for scholars to make an impact with their research. SSRN is dedicated to the advancement of science through open sharing.
To browse SSRN's eLibrary subject area networks, click here.
5. Which publishers and institutions does SSRN work with? ↑ back to top
Through our Partners in Publishing program we work with over 1,800 scientific journals and research institutions who provide us information on forthcoming papers and permission to have their work posted to SSRN. Please select the 'Partners in Publishing' link on our home page or click here for a complete list of these publishers, journals, and institutions. If your institution would like information on how to participate, please send an email to: Management@SSRN.com.
6. How do I contact SSRN? ↑ back to top
For General Customer Support
Contact SSRN Help Desk Online email@example.com
Call 877-SSRNHelp (877 777 6435) in the United States, or +1 212 448 2500 outside of the United States
1239 University Ave, Floor 2
Rochester, NY 14607
Office Phone: 212 448 2500
Office Fax: 585 442 8171
7. Do I need an account to use SSRN? ↑ back to top
Most of SSRN's core services are available to users without a SSRN account and without signing in. They include:
Some of SSRN's services do require that you sign into your SSRN User Headquarters (HQ) account. This account is free and requires only an email address and password to set up. The services that require sign-in include:
- Search or Browse the SSRN eLibrary
- View abstract pages for all papers
- Download free full text papers
- View Author pages for all authors
- View the Top 10 SSRN Rankings for authors, papers, institutions and subject matter areas
To sign in or to create a free SSRN User HQ account, go to http://hq.ssrn.com. Once signed in, you can change your User ID and Password, if you so choose, by clicking on the hotlinks located on the Welcome page. Many users find it useful to bookmark this SSRN User HQ sign in page.
- Submit a paper
- Subscribe to an eJournal
- View the references and citations tabs on a paper's abstract page
- View the entire SSRN Rankings list for authors, papers and institutions
- Submit and/or Register for a conference
- Make a purchase
- Manage your contact information including your institutional affiliation
8. What is the usage policy regarding personal information on the SSRN site? ↑ back to top
9. What are PlumX Metrics? ↑ back to top
Introducing the PlumX widget integration presented on SSRN.com article abstract pages. Now, SSRN article abstract pages include more data metrics including social media shares and blog mentions. PlumX Metrics provide insights into the ways people interact with individual pieces of research output (abstracts, working papers, articles, conference proceedings, book chapters, and many more) in the online environment. Collectively known as PlumX Metrics, these metrics are divided into five categories to help make sense of the huge amounts of data involved and to enable analysis by comparing like with like. Read more about PlumX.
1. How do I use my SSRN User Headquarters (HQ) account to submit a paper? ↑ back to top
To submit a paper to SSRN you must have a SSRN User Headquarters (HQ) account. This account is free and requires only an email address and password to set up.
SSRN's User HQ allows you to submit and manage your abstracts/papers in our system, manage your contact information and personal eJournal subscriptions, make purchases from SSRN, and access page features available only to registered users.
To sign in or to create a free SSRN User HQ account, go to http://hq.ssrn.com. Once signed in, you can change your User ID and Password, if you so choose, by clicking on the hotlinks located on the Welcome page. Many users find it useful to bookmark this SSRN User HQ sign-in page.
Prior to submitting a paper, enter your name, affiliation and contact information that will display on your SSRN Author page by using the Personal Info and Affiliation links in the left menu. To begin submission of a paper, access your My Papers page in the left menu. Once there, select the "Start New Submission" button. Detailed submission instructions are available below.
2. Is my paper eligible for inclusion and public display in SSRN's eLibrary? ↑ back to top
A paper must be part of the worldwide scholarly discourse covered by one or more of SSRN's subject area networks to be eligible for inclusion and public display in SSRN's eLibrary. Every submitted paper is reviewed by SSRN staff to ensure that the paper is a part of the scholarly discourse in its subject area. SSRN does not provide peer review for papers in the eLibrary.
An author may submit a paper that is not scholarly – for example, an editorial or opinion paper. The author must have a scholarly work accepted to SSRN before a non-scholarly work will be accepted. These non-scholarly works will be given an "Approved-Private" status (rather than "Approved"). The author can choose (on their My Papers page) to have the private papers appear on their Author page in the "Other Papers" section. These private works will not be searchable from SSRN's Search page and will not appear within any network on the Browse page. The private papers are, however, searchable by external search engines (e.g. Google) if the author included them on their author page. The author may also post the URL elsewhere for download or send the URL of their private paper to readers.
3. How can I have my own paper included in the SSRN eLibrary? ↑ back to top
We invite you to submit your own papers for inclusion in our eLibrary.
For detailed instructions on how to submit, please read our STEP-BY-STEP SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS
Download Step-by-Step Instructions - click on the PDF icon to download these submission instructions
STEP-BY-STEP SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBMIT OR REVISE SUBMISSIONS TO SSRN'S ELIBRARY
- Information Required for Submission:
- To upload the full text paper, you must submit it as a PDF file. All languages accepted. (See 4. How can I submit a non-English paper?).
- Title (See instructions below for submitting Non-English language papers).
- Names of all authors along with their email addresses.
- Date paper was written.
- If your paper is part of an institutional working paper series, you will need the name of the working paper series and the working paper number.
- If the paper has already been published or accepted for publication, you will need the publication information for the "Reference" section of the submission form.
- Abstract of the paper.
- Permission from copyright holder (if not yourself) to post on SSRN.
- CAUTION: As you fill out the submission form click "Save" on each section to ensure that no work is lost. You can come back and finish this form later as long as you have clicked "Save" on each section you have made changes in, or by clicking "Save and close all" and then closing the browser window. You can return to finish the submission or revision by going to your My Papers page accessible from your SSRN HQ page. The paper will be listed in your "In Process Papers" section of your My Papers Page and its status in the Status column will be "Not Submitted". To continue the in process submission or revision click on the Edit button in the Edit Column for this submission.
- Submission Steps
- Sign into your SSRN account at SSRN's User HeadQuarters: https://hq.ssrn.com. If you do not have an account, you will have an opportunity to register and create a free account on this sign in page.
- After you sign in, you will be at your SSRN User Headquarters welcome page. Click the "My Papers" link in the menu to the left.
- To enter a new submission, click the "Start New Submission" button centered near the top of the page.
NOTE for making a revision on SSRN: If you know the paper has already been submitted to SSRN, you should do a revision rather than a new submission. To revise a prior submission, find the paper in the list of papers on your "My Papers" page, and click the "Revise" button located in the first column.
NOTE for working paper coordinators: Please ask your author to begin a submission, and have them add you as "Assistant" in the Author section. This will allow you to make future changes or additions.
NOTE for research paper series coordinators: If you are intending to revise a previously submitted paper, by one of your authors ask your SSRN contact for access to that submission.
- Upon starting the submission, you will be shown a message that SSRN does not take copyright on your paper, that you will be giving SSRN a non-exclusive right to distribute your paper and that you retain the right to remove your paper from SSRN at any time. Click "Continue" and begin entering information on your submission.
- What you see is basically an editable version of the SSRN public abstract page for a paper (with some additional submission management items). The basic procedure is the same throughout each section of the submission process on this page. If you move your cursor up and down through the form, you will see each editable section will be highlighted in bright yellow. Click on any yellow section to expand the section to an editable field. You can expand all the sections at once by clicking on the "Expand All Sections for Editing" link located in the top left under the Abstract tab. After entering or modifying the information in each section click "Save" in the upper right-hand corner of that section. Or you can click on the "Save and Close All" option at the top left under the abstract tab if you wish to save and close all the open sections. If you make a mistake, you can always return to a section to correct it by clicking on any yellow section again to edit it.
- Any time you see a question mark icon, hover your cursor over it for additional information.
- At any time, you can refer to the status box (the vertical rectangle) on the right to determine if any required steps are still incomplete.
NOTE: As we said above you can return to finish a submission or revision at a later time. However, before leaving the submission form, click "Save" on each section to ensure that no work is lost. To reopen a submission, go to your My Papers page. The submission will be listed in your "In Process Papers" section, and its status will be "Not Submitted". Click on the "Edit button" in the Edit column, finish your submission, and click the "Submit to SSRN" button once complete.
- Below are more detailed instructions for the individual sections, from top to bottom:
NOTE for RPS working paper coordinators: If you are making a submission to a research paper series, please be sure you have included your cover page as the first page of the PDF file prior to uploading.
IMPORTANT: A notice will pop up asking you to certify that you authorize SSRN to post and distribute the submission. By checking the box and clicking "Submit to SSRN", you do not convey copyright to SSRN, but you do agree to the following conditions:
"I certify that the information submitted is correct and convey to SSRN the non-exclusive, revocable right to post and electronically distribute the abstract (and full text paper, if submitted to SSRN). Generally, an author can convey this right, unless he or she has given exclusive electronic rights to a publisher. If you have questions about copyright for a published article, please contact the publisher or contact SSRN."
- "Upload full text PDF document" (at the top of the submission page) - This is optional, but strongly encouraged. If you choose to upload a full text paper, it must be a PDF file, and the title on the PDF must match the title entered in the "Title" section. Click the yellow section once to expand it, then click on the "Choose File" button to browse your hard drive to find the full text PDF file on your computer. When located, double click on the full text PDF file name and the SSRN system will begin uploading it immediately. (You can use these same steps to replace a full text PDF that has already been uploaded.)
To download the full text paper and verify that it is the correct file, click on the "PDF" icon while this section is expanded.
The checkbox "Add Paper URL to PDF" will be automatically checked. Once your submission has been processed this will add the following line to the bottom of the first two pages of your submitted PDF:
"Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=XXXX" (where XXXX is the abstract ID for your submission).
This link allows readers to easily find your document online at SSRN. If you do not wish this URL to be added to your PDF file, uncheck the box.
To remove the PDF file from your SSRN submission (at any time), click the red minus sign (-) next to the PDF file name in the "Upload full text PDF document" section of the submission form.
- "Availability" - By default, a new submission is "Publicly Available", which means it is searchable in the SSRN database and eligible for distribution in our eJournals.
You can set a submission to "Privately Available" by clicking the radio button labeled "Privately Available (distributable by me)".
Privately available papers will not appear in the SSRN search engine, and will not distribute in eJournals.
Making a submission Privately Available is a useful way to distribute drafts of a scholarly paper to a select audience by sending them the URL of the SSRN abstract page. You can make the paper Publicly Available at a later time if you so choose.
Non-scholarly papers such as Op Ed or opinion papers must be made "Privately Available". If you wish them to be publicly available in the "Other Papers" section of your author page you accomplish this by checking the "Include on Author Page" box for this paper on your "My Papers" page. Although checking this box will make this paper visible and publicly downloadable on your author page (in the "Other Papers" section) and will make it searchable by 3rd party search engines like Google and Bing, it will not be available to the SSRN scholarly search engine. Since SSRN has a very high Google page rank, this is a good way to distribute non-scholarly papers to the public.
You can make a scholarly Privately Available paper Publicly Available at any time by clicking the "Make Public" button for that paper on your "My Papers" page.
- "Title" - Click to expand. Enter the paper title, and click "Save". Title case is required. The SSRN system will automatically implement title case in the title when you save it.
- "Authors" - Click to expand.
Searching for a co-author using the Name field
The co-author name search is performed on the full name of the author (first, middle, last name). We display the primary affiliation and redacted email address associated with their primary affiliation in the search results when you search for names.
- Search: ehr
Returns: Individuals whose first, middle or last name contains the letters ehr
- Search: an ehr
Returns: Individuals who have a first, middle or last name containing the letters an and who have a first, middle or last name that contains ehr
- Search: "ehr" (within quotes)
Returns: Individuals who have a first, middle or last name with an exact match of ehr
To refine any name search and receive more targeted results, type the full name or include more letters in your search.
Search results are divided into "Current SSRN Authors" (defined as someone who has at least one scholarly paper in the SSRN eLibrary) and "SSRN members with No Papers Currently on SSRN". If you do not find who you are looking for in the "Current SSRN Authors" list, look through the "SSRN members with No Papers Currently on SSRN" list to see if your co-author has an account with SSRN but has not posted any papers.
If the author is not found on either list, use the “Add a New Author to SSRN” link (found at the bottom of the Authors section). Enter the required fields, including the author's email address. When prompted to "Add Affiliation", search and select the author's current affiliation. If you do not have available all the necessary information for your co-author, please let him or her know that they should sign into https://hq.ssrn.com and update or complete their personal information.
Searching for a co-author using the Email field
The co-author email search is performed on all email addresses associated with all the affiliations an author has provided. The search term must be an exact match to deliver the result.
- NOTE to submitter who is not an author: By default, the submitter is treated as an Author and as the Primary Contact. If you an assistant submitting on behalf of the author, you must add the author to the paper and then change yourself to "Assistant" (by clicking the "Assistant" radio button). This will ensure your continued access to the submission, and ensures that you will not appear as an author of the paper on the public abstract page. Click "Save" when complete.
- "Paper Date" - Click to expand. Enter the date the paper was written or the date last revised, and click "Save". If no date is entered, the default is the date of submission.
- "References" - Highlight and click "Working Paper Series" to expand.
- Submitting a Paper that is not included in a Paper Series, Journal or Book?
Leave the answers to both questions that appear in this section unchanged and click "Save".
- Submitting a Paper that is included in a Working Paper Series
Leave the answer to the question: "Is this a working paper or an accepted paper?" to the default selection, WPS. If your paper has been selected to appear in a working paper series, select "Yes" in response to the second question: "Has this paper appeared, or been selected to appear, in a Paper Series, Journal or Book?". A search field will then appear. Enter the name of your working paper series (or portion of it) into the search field.
- If your series is found select your series from the search results . The page will refresh and you will then have an editable field to enter the working paper number. Enter the paper number.
- If your series is not found, click "Enter New Reference" and manually enter the name of the working paper series.
You may repeat the above process as many times as needed to enter all the working paper series applicable to this submission. When finished, click "Save."
- Submitting a Paper that appears or will appear in one or more Journals/Books
To enter an "Accepted Paper Series" reference, click on the "APS" radio button following the question "Is this a working paper or an accepted paper?". In the search field that appears, enter the name of the journal/book (or portion of it). When the results appear, select your journal/book from the search results list. The page will refresh and you will then have one or more editable boxes to provide additional information. If the journal/book does not appear in the results, click "Enter New Reference", and a box will appear for you to enter the reference manually. Manually entered references should not include DOIs or external URLs.
NOTE: Repeat this process as necessary to enter multiple references or working paper series IDs. Click the red minus (-) sign next to any unwanted entry to remove it.
- "Abstract" - Click to expand. Type or copy and paste the abstract into the Abstract Body field. Copying and pasting is recommended to avoid errors. Enter a blank line between each paragraph. This abstract field is reserved for a description of the content of the paper, and should not include external URLs or disclaimers. It is advisable to keep your abstract less than 300 words. Entering keywords and JEL (Journal of Economic Literature) codes (if applicable) are recommended, but optional. They assist users in finding your submission in our public search engine and our classifiers in selecting eJournals for the distribution of your submission. If you do not have keywords or JEL codes, simply leave these fields blank.
NOTE for non-English language papers: An English version of the abstract must be included if you wish your paper to be publicly available. (See 4. How can I submit a non- English paper?).
- "eJournal Classifications" - SSRN eJournals are e-mail abstracting journals that contain title, author and abstract of each submission in a subject matter area. Click "eJournal Classifications" to expand this section. You can select up to 12 subject matter eJournals for distribution of the abstract of your paper, or you can elect to have SSRN classify your submission for the relevant subject/topic areas by clicking the radio button "Have SSRN select eJournal classifications for this paper". All of your classifications will be reviewed by SSRN classifiers as well as by the editors of each selected eJournal. If you know the name of the SSRN eJournal you wish to classify into, type it into the Search field and select it from the drop-down box. To browse the available eJournal choices, you can expand the list under "Browse SSRN eLibrary" by clicking the plus sign (+) next to the appropriate network. To select a classification, click the checkbox next to the relevant eJournal, topic or sub-topic. Move your cursor over the classification names to see a more detailed description. As you select classifications, they will appear in a list at the top of this section. You can remove any classification by clicking the red minus (-) sign to the right of any classification.
- "Status Box" - Review the Status box to the right of the submission form to confirm all sections are Complete. All sections must be labeled "Complete" in order to submit.
- "Make Immediately Available" - In most cases you will have the option to click the checkbox next to "Make Immediately Available". If you click this checkbox, your submission will be made immediately available to the SSRN eLibrary and to the SSRN scholarly search engine after you submit it. It will show up in the SSRN eLibrary on a watermarked page that will say: "UNDER REVIEW BY SSRN". That watermark will disappear when SSRN staff has approved the paper. See below for more on SSRN's review.
- "Submit to SSRN" - After you have verified that all sections are complete, you can then click the "Submit to SSRN" button.
- What Happens Next:
- SSRN Review - Your submission has now been submitted to SSRN for review. SSRN is committed to review all submitted papers for public release on the SSRN site within 24-48 hours, but on occasion it may take longer. You and your co-authors will receive an email confirmation when processing has been completed.
- Additional Information:
SSRN's Scholarly Paper Policy: SSRN is devoted to the public display and distribution of scholarly research in a broad range of fields from Economics, Law and Management to Political Science, Neuroscience, Philosophy and Music amongst others. SSRN does not peer review submissions. A submission that is not part of the worldwide scholarly discourse in its field is not eligible for public distribution through the SSRN eLibrary and SSRN's search engine. A submission that does not meet the scholarly discourse standards in its field, for example an Op-Ed or opinion piece, will be set to Privately Available. A Privately Available submission can be selected to appear in the "Other Papers" section of one's author page by checking the box under the "Include on Author Page" column found on an author's "My Papers" page.
- You can return to your "My Papers" page and you will see the submission listed in the section labeled "In Process Papers". Its status in the Status column will be "Submitted" or "Approved-Author" (the status shown when "Make Immediately Available" has been selected).
- You will be able to edit your submission by clicking the "Edit" button in the left hand column of the "In Process Papers" section of your My Papers page. This puts the paper back into "Not Submitted" status. Make the desired changes using the same procedures outlined above, and be sure to click "Submit to SSRN" when you are done to resubmit the paper to SSRN for processing.
- Once the SSRN review process begins, your "Edit" button will disappear and your paper status will then be "In Review". After SSRN has reviewed and "Approved" the submission, the status will change to "Approved" and the submission will be moved into your Publicly Available Papers section of your "My Papers" page and it will appear on your SSRN public Author Page in the Scholarly Papers section.
- If you requested your paper to be Privately Available it will appear in the Privately Available Papers section of your My Papers page and it will not appear on your public Author Page. If you wish a Privately Available non-scholarly paper to appear on your Author Page in your "Other Papers" section click the box in the "Include on Author Page" column on the right hand side of Your My Papers page. If you wish a Privately Available scholarly paper to appear in your Scholarly Papers section of your Author Page click on the button "Make Public" on the right hand side of your My Papers page.
- Once the paper review process is complete, the eJournal classifications of your submission will be available for review by our classifiers. You will notice that the "Status" column for your paper on you're My Papers page contains a link that will give you information on the status and/or distribution schedule for each classification selected for this paper.
- If you have any problems or questions, please feel free to contact our office, and our Customer Support Team will gladly walk you through the submission process. We can be reached by email: Support@SSRN.com or by phone: 877-SSRNHelp (877-777-6435) in the United States, or +1 212-448-2500 outside of the United States. We are open Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:30 AM and 6:00 PM, United States Eastern time.
4. How can I submit a non-English paper? ↑ back to top
Process for submitting with a non-English language title and/or abstract and/or non-English PDF file:
- How to submit in a language other than English:
- An English title and English abstract, in addition to the non-English title and abstract, are required for a submission to be Publicly Available on SSRN.
- The language of the paper determines the order in which the English and non-English title and abstract should be entered in the SSRN submission form. The title that is listed second should be placed within parentheses. The English and non-English abstracts should be separated by a carriage return.
- How to link multiple language versions of the same paper on SSRN:
- SSRN encourages authors of non-English papers to also submit English language versions of the same paper to increase readership.
- If you submit an English language PDF file of this same paper, we ask that you include the SSRN URL of the non-English language version.
- Please enter the following sentence as the first paragraph in the abstract of the English language version: The [enter language of non-English paper] version of this paper can be found at http://ssrn.com/abstract=YYYYYY (replace the "Y's" with the abstract ID number of the non-English language version of the paper)
- Please enter the following sentence as the first paragraph in the abstract of the non-English language version: The English version of this paper can be found at http://ssrn.com/abstract=XXXXXXX (Replace the "X's" with the abstract ID number of the English Language version of the paper)
- To be clear: The wording of the line above must appear in the language of the version it is pointing to. If a paper is submitted in two or more other languages, you should follow the same policy as outlined above to point the reader to each of the papers.
5. How can I create a PDF file? ↑ back to top
SSRN only accepts PDF files. PDF stands for Portable Document Format. It is an open, universal standard for printer-ready documents containing text, pictures, charts, graphs, and more. Unlike a word processor document, all the elements on the page are fixed in place and ready to print.
There are many applications available to enable PDF conversion for Windows users. The following instructions make use of a free program called "doPDF", which is also used and recommended by SSRN staff.
First, install doPDF on your computer (you will only need to do this once):
After completing installation, "doPDF v7" will now be listed as one of your printers. This will enable you to create PDF files from within word processors, text editors, or any other application that has a "Print" option.
- Go to http://www.dopdf.com/.
- Click on the "Get it!" icon to save the dopdf-7.exe file to your desktop. (If prompted to choose "run" or "save", you can choose "run".)
- Double-click the dopdf-7.exe file on your desktop to run the doPDF Setup Wizard, and follow the prompts. It is unlikely that you will need to change any of the default options during this process.
Mac OS X users:
- From within your word processor, choose "Print..." from the "File" menu.
- Select "doPDF v7" as your printer.
- Click "Print" at the bottom of the dialog box.
- Click "Browse" to choose a location on your hard drive, and give the file a suitable name.
- Click "OK" to create the PDF.
PDF conversion capability is built into the Mac OS X operating system, so there is no need to download special software. PDF files can be created from any application that has a "Print" option.
- From within your word processor, choose "Print..." from the "File" menu.
- At the bottom left of the Print dialog box, click "PDF".
- Choose "Save as PDF..." from the drop-down menu.
- Enter the desired file name and choose a location.
- Click "Save" to create the PDF.
6. Is there a fee for a researcher to submit his/her paper to the site? ↑ back to top
No fee is charged for the submission of abstracts and papers for inclusion in the SSRN eLibrary and distribution in email eJournals. Authors are encouraged to submit all their research papers, including older papers.
7. Does the institution where the researcher is working need to subscribe to SSRN in order for him/her to be able to submit papers? ↑ back to top
No subscription is required on the part of any organization, school, or individual author as a prerequisite to submission.
8. Is My Paper Eligible for Distribution in a SSRN eJournal? ↑ back to top
A paper submitted to SSRN is eligible for distribution in SSRN's eJournals subject to the following conditions:
- The paper must be part of the worldwide scholarly discourse in the field covered by the eJournal.
- The date on the paper must be no older than 12 months from the date it is submitted. (We encourage authors to submit their historical papers that are older than 12 months, but they will not be distributed in SSRN's eJournals because readers expect papers in those eJournals to be recent research.)
- There are occasions in which for various reasons SSRN is delayed in distributing a paper that was less than 12 months old at submission (for example, the eJournal was in the start up phase and did not start distributing immediately). In such cases where the delay was caused by SSRN, we will make our best effort to distribute the paper (subject to approval of the eJournal editor).
- SSRN does not want SSRN Subject Matter eJournals to be used for book advertising. We reserve the right to exclude from distribution book submissions which are abstract-only and those containing an abstract plus a table of contents PDF file. Such submissions will be eligible for inclusion in the SSRN eLibrary and therefore available to the SSRN search engine as well as external search engines such as Google and Bing.
9. Is submission of a paper to SSRN tantamount to prior submissions by scholarly refereed journals? ↑ back to top
We do not consider sharing a working version of a paper on SSRN to be prior publication- a paper posted on SSRN has not been peer reviewed or copyedited or published. Most journals share this view and will accept submissions that have been shared on SSRN- since this does not constitute a publication. A small number of journals do have a more restrictive view; we recommend that you check the policy of journals you plan to submit to if you are not sure.
10. Does submission to SSRN restrict in any way what I can do with my paper? ↑ back to top
No. And if at any time you wish to immediately remove a paper from SSRN, you may do it yourself through SSRN HQ, or contact us to remove it for you.
11. What do I need to know about Copyright Policies? ↑ back to top
You do not transfer copyright for any papers (or other documents) you post on SSRN. You grant SSRN a non-exclusive, revocable license that allows SSRN to provide its services to SSRN users. You retain the right to remove your paper from SSRN at any time, or to leave the paper on SSRN but make it only privately available.
When you provide material to SSRN, we ask you to confirm to us that doing so does not violate other parties' copyright or other proprietary rights. Accordingly, you may only post versions of academic papers or articles (“Academic Papers”) on SSRN if you have the right to do so. By way of example, while many journal publishers permit posting of some versions of Academic Papers, most journals restrict the sharing of final versions. To be sure you have the right to upload such content, you should review your publishing agreement, the publisher’s copyright policies, and/or any other applicable information prior to posting any version of an Academic Paper.
You may post your paper to SSRN only if you are the copyright owner, have the copyright owner’s permission, are permitted to do so under your publishing agreement or the publisher’s copyright policies or your institution’s license agreement or under a Creative Commons license.
SSRN reserves the right in its sole discretion to delete or remove from the public eLibrary material that violates the rights of third parties or SSRN policy, as well as the right to terminate or restrict your right to post material on SSRN.
Generally, an author can convey a non-exclusive license to SSRN, unless he or she has given exclusive electronic rights to a publisher. If you have questions about copyright, please contact the publisher, your librarian or SSRN. You may submit papers of any age to SSRN.
If you do not own the copyright, many publishers will allow you to post the title and abstract of your work on SSRN. SSRN holds copyright on its own pages and software and SSRN-created content and presents author content with the permission of the author or copyright holder.
The materials on SSRN may be downloaded solely for personal, non-commercial informational or scholarly use. No materials may otherwise be copied, modified, published, broadcast or otherwise distributed. SSRN, SSRN.com and/or any other names of products or services provided by SSRN or referred to on this web site are trademarks of SSRN.
12. What should I do if I suspect a publishing ethics violation, such as plagiarism, in a paper posted on SSRN? ↑ back to top
Complaints and queries related to publishing ethics issues, such as plagiarism, should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Complaints to email@example.com should include the following:
- The name, organizational affiliation, and email address of the claiming party;
- The original document (or the specific URL where the content is located) and evidence showing original authorship;
- A description of the offense, including specific examples demonstrating the violation.
- (i) temporary or permanent withdrawal of the right to use SSRN and/or closure of the relevant account;
- (ii) temporary or permanent removal of any posting or material uploaded by a user to SSRN;
- (iii) issue of a warning;
13. What should I do if I suspect a copyright violation in a paper posted on SSRN? ↑ back to top
To raise complaints regarding alleged copyright or other intellectual property infringement, please follow the instructions set forth on the Copyright and Intellectual Property Policy page.
- (i) temporary or permanent withdrawal of the right to use SSRN and/or closure of the relevant account;
- (ii) temporary or permanent removal of any posting or material uploaded by a user to SSRN;
- (iii) issue of a warning;
14. How do I Revise my previously submitted paper? ↑ back to top
To revise one of your submissions, sign in at http://hq.ssrn.com. Click on the "My Papers" link in the menu to the left. Click on the blue "Revise" button located to the left of the Abstract ID number of the corresponding submission and make the necessary changes.
When you are finished making your changes, please be sure to click the "Submit to SSRN" button (located on the last page of the revision process).
15. How does SSRN handle multiple versions of a paper? What is a Version Group? ↑ back to top
Often, when an author submits a revision of a paper that already exists on SSRN, they will replace the older version of the paper. But sometimes there are reasons to have multiple versions of a paper - for example, if the paper is included in multiple Research Paper Series, or if it is the same paper translated into another language, or if it differs by one or more authors, or content, or if the history of previous versions is desired. If an author posts two or more papers that are substantially the same, SSRN will combine the 2 or more versions so that they appear together on the author page. SSRN calls this a "Version Group". SSRN defines a "Version Group" as "a set of one or more papers with substantially the same authorship and scholarly content such that a citation to one of the members of the set is essentially a citation to the entire set, and that a download of one of the members is essentially an expression of interest in the entire work represented by the set".
The effect of having a "Version Group" is:
SSRN evaluates whether a new submission is substantially the same as a previous submission. If we judge that it is, we will create a version group or add to an existing version group for the paper. If we have not identified 2 or more papers as substantially the same and you would like us to combine them into a version group, or if we have combined papers incorrectly, or if you would like to have the papers within a version group ordered in a different way than by descending download count, please contact us at AuthorSupport@SSRN.com or call the office at 877-SSRNHelp (877 777 6435) in the United States, or +1 212 448 2500 outside of the United States. We are open Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:30AM and 6:00PM, United States Eastern. Please note that we are currently unable to match an alternate language paper to its original version - please contact the office to request a version group or add a Comment when Submitting to notify us with which paper(s) it should be grouped.
- The papers appear together within one expandable row on the author page.
- The individual papers within the group are displayed by default in order of descending downloads, and the title of the most downloaded paper in the group becomes the title of the version group. Customer Support can customize the order of papers within a version group.
- The downloads and citations of the individual papers are summed and shown as a total for the version group on the author page
- The paper statistics "Citations" and "Download Ranks" displayed on the abstract page of any individual member of a version group are the statistics for the sum of the whole version group, not for the individual paper.
Currently, the Top Papers Ranking Table ranks individual papers only, not version groups. We plan to change the Top Papers to rank versions groups of papers in the future.
16. Can I include non-SSRN URLs in my submission to SSRN? ↑ back to top
Yes. Users regularly include, in the full text PDF of their paper, URLs that link to the articles they cite in their footnotes or references. We encourage authors to provide the URLs because it helps readers link to the literature relevant to that paper.
We do not allow non-SSRN URLs in the abstract section of the Public Abstract Page primarily because of our concerns about security and our ability to provide customer support.
Questionable URLs could be entered by malicious individuals during the submission process and cause a significant amount of harm to users (both SSRN staff checking them and external users if they became available publicly). There are some automated processes being developed to mitigate the risk but they are not fool-proof and SSRN, being a small company that does not charge for most of our services, does not have the resources to overcome the potential security problems nor the desire to incur the legal and reputational risks.
Customer support is another concern. Assuming a proper URL was submitted, we do not have the resources to support the URLs by testing them when the article is submitted, confirming that they have not broken over time, or repairing them when they break. Our users expect all of our links to work 100% of the time and when they have a problem they contact us. Since we cannot properly support non-SSRN URLs, we have chosen to not allow them to be included on the Public Abstract Page.
17. How do I manage my Personal Information page? ↑ back to top
- User ID: SSRN uses your email address as your initial User ID, but you may change your User ID to another unique name.
Password: Must be between 5 and 10 characters. Passwords are not case sensitive.
- Name: The name used to set up your account. This is your default display public name.
Public Display Name: Change your name here if you wish your display name to be different than your account name.
Alternate Language Name: Optional field to include your name in a language or characters other than what is found in the "Name" fields and/or "Public Display Name" fields (e.g. Chinese). This name is not publicly displayed.
Suffix: Include a generational suffix.
Highest Academic Degree: Select your official certification of completed study at an academic institution.
SSRN Contact Email: Designate the email address where you want to receive your SSRN eJournal subscriptions and other SSRN notifications.
ORCID: An independent non-profit effort to provide an open registry of unique researcher identifiers and link research activities and organizations to those identifiers. For more information, visit orcid.org.
Author page photo:
- This organizational affiliation is displayed on your Author page and Abstract pages. To display a URL of your website on your Author page, edit your affiliation.
- Authors with at least one paper displaying on their SSRN Author page may post a headshot photo of themselves on their author page. The photo will be reviewed by SSRN, and will be removed if it does not meet these standards:
- Only JPEG, GIF, TIFF, PNG and BMP files can be uploaded.
- If it contains something other than a headshot photo of you alone.
When you upload a headshot photo of yourself, it will immediately display on your Author page. You may preview how it looks by selecting the "View Author Page" link.
18. Will SSRN apply a DOI to my paper submission? ↑ back to top
Yes. A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) will be added to the abstract page in the Suggested Citation area. DOI's are generated by Crossref and can take up to two weeks to appear on the abstract page.
SSRN may change the Terms from time to time, at the sole discretion of Elsevier, Inc. Your continued use of this website following the posting of such changes will constitute your assent to all such changes.
2. Which Internet browsers does SSRN support? ↑ back to top
SSRN supports the latest versions of Safari, Firefox, Chrome & Internet Explorer. We recommend upgrading for optimal performance.
3. What are Cookies on SSRN? ↑ back to top
All cookies are either session (deleted from your device after you leave the website) or permanent (not deleted from your device after you leave the website. They remain on your device for a longer period of time).
The cookies used on this website are as follows:
4. What is a Download? What is an Abstract View? ↑ back to top
Downloads are a measure of the number of times a paper has been delivered to an interested party. SSRN takes great care to ensure that download counts are an accurate measure of reader interest in an author's work.
A SSRN download starts with the reader visiting the paper's "Abstract page". This visit to the abstract page counts as an "Abstract View" for the paper. Readers who want to read the full paper can then download the PDF file or view the PDF file in a browser window. Both count as a download for the paper. In general, only one out of four abstract views results in a download. Because we display complete abstracts of every paper, interested readers make informed decisions regarding whether or not to download the full text of a particular paper, rather than uninformed explorations triggered only by a catchy or vague title. The full text of the paper can also be downloaded or viewed from the Reference and Citation tabs on the Abstract page, and from the Author page.
In addition, SSRN makes significant efforts to not count "robot" or other inappropriate downloads. We do not allow single click downloads from external sources such as search engines or blogs. If we permitted this, download counts would be significantly inflated - estimated to be a factor that has been increasing over time and is now close to six. This would degrade download counts as a signal of paper quality, and substantially increase the ability of users to manipulate them. If SSRN finds errors in download counts due to technical problems or individual attempts to manipulate, SSRN will adjust those counts accordingly.
5. What is RSS? ↑ back to top
RSS is an abbreviation for Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary. It is a standard for distributing updates to a web site on regular basis. Most news organizations have RSS feeds, and SSRN has created them for all SSRN authors and Rankings. Each author feed provides the latest updates, including new submissions and revisions, and the ranking feeds provide the current top ten papers, authors, or organizations. You can see the RSS feed in your browser by clicking on the icon: (the RSS XML link) or follow it by dragging/copying the icon from an author's home page or top of the Ranking page to a RSS news aggregator. RSS news aggregators are generally free and relatively easy to use. To find a selection of RSS news aggregators, search for "RSS aggregator" on Google by clicking here.
1. What is the SSRN eLibrary? ↑ back to top
The SSRN eLibrary contains working and accepted papers in the fields of financial economics, accounting research, legal scholarship, economic research and management research. It may be accessed from the SSRN home page (http://www.ssrn.com) by selecting 'SSRN eLibrary' or by choosing 'Search and Download Papers' on the function bar.
The library consists of:
Abstract Database: contains abstracts of over 756,400 articles contributed by scholars worldwide. Information includes complete title, author contact and affiliation information, abstract or description, distribution history in SSRN and print journals and availability of the full text of the article from our Electronic Paper Collection.
Electronic Paper Collection: a collection of files containing full text of over 639,200 working papers in downloadable Acrobat PDF format.
Author Home Page: The Public Abstract Page presents an Author Home Page link for each author, and can be accessed by clicking on the name of the author anywhere it appears as a hot link in the SSRN system. Each Author Home Page contains complete affiliation and contact information; current list of abstracts and full text documents available in the SSRN database, and current download counts for papers with full text documents.
2. How do I SEARCH for a paper in the SSRN eLibrary? ↑ back to top
On the SSRN Home Page http://www.ssrn.com, select "Enter SSRN eLibrary" or "Search". You may also click on the following link: http://papers.ssrn.com. This brings you to the main Search page where all papers in SSRN’s Scholarly eLibrary which the author has chosen to make public are searched. Papers which the author has designated private, or which SSRN hosts but designates not eligible for the scholarly public eLibrary (e.g. opinion papers) are excluded from the search. Here you may choose to access the content of the eLibrary by selecting a tab to "Search Author, Title, Abstract, Keywords", or to "Browse SSRN Networks & eJournal Subject Areas", or to "Browse JEL Codes" (Journal of Economic Literature). The page defaults to "Search Author, Title, Abstract, Keywords".
"Search Author, Title, Abstract, Keywords":
QuickSearch is a way to perform a broad search for papers in SSRN’s eLibrary. It is located on the Search page and also in the headers of the following pages: SSRN Home page, Browse, Top Authors, and Top Organizations.
In the single field you may enter: a search term or terms, an author name, a combination of term(s) and author name, or an abstract ID number. Select "Search" and the criteria will be searched for in the following data fields: Title, Abstract Body, Keywords, Author Name and Abstract ID. For example, if you enter the term "wood", you will receive all papers with the term wood in the title, abstract body, and keywords, and you will also receive papers written by any author with Wood as a first, middle, or last name. If you wish to conduct a more precise search, you have the options to:
- Put your search term in quotation marks to conduct an exact match search. For example, if you type the terms (without quotation marks) -- happiness is -- you will receive all papers that have the separate words “happiness” and “is” anywhere in the title, abstract body, abstract ID number, keywords, and author name. If you enclose the search terms in quotes -- “happiness is”-- the results will only be for papers where the two words “happiness” and “is” occur together and consecutively in that order.
- Narrow your search on the results page using Search Within
- Use Advanced Search on the Search page.
On the "Author, Title, Abstract, Keywords" search page, SSRN's search engine searches the following fields: Title, Abstract Body, Keywords, Author Name, Abstract ID Date, and Subject Networks. You may search for all or part of a title, author name(s), word(s), a phrase, keyword(s), and the SSRN abstract ID number. You may also refine and narrow your search by using one or more of the following:
The search engine will return summary information (including the title, author, date posted, downloads and journal name) on the papers that match your search criteria. The initial results are sorted by total downloads of the full text paper. You can re-sort the results using the “Sort By” drop-down menu, which provides options to re-sort by abstract title A to Z or Z to A, ascending and descending date downloads, and ascending date posted. You can also use the "Search Within Results" to further refine the results. For more information see What is "Search Within Results"?
- Search Title only by selecting that radio button.
- Specify a date range using the drop down options.
- Search one or more Subject Area Networks rather than the entire eLibrary. Select "Modify" to open the Network list and select one or more subject area networks to include in the search by checking or unchecking each subject area. A "Remember this" option is available which allows you to save your Network preferences. To use this feature, check the "Remember this" box after you have selected your subject areas. If you use this feature, your saved set of networks will be applied by default to future searches (unless you over-ride it manually). To remove your default Network preferences, de-select "Remember this". You must be signed into SSRN HQ and allow cookies to use the "Remember this" option.
If the paper has a downloadable full text PDF file available, it will have a "blue dog-eared page icon" next to the title. A "red dog-eared page icon" denotes a fee-for-download paper. Click on the title of any paper in the search results to be taken to that paper's abstract page for more information and to download the PDF file. Click on an author's name to go to that author's SSRN Author page, where you can view all of his/her papers on SSRN.
To Find papers by:
Author, Title, Abstract or Keyword Enter a word, phrase or abstract ID number in the Search Term(s) field Exact Match Enclose the exact wording or phrase in quotes in the Search Term(s) field (e.g. "rock the boat") All of these words independent of order ("AND" condition) Enter all of the words that you wish to find together in the Search Term(s) field, each separated by a space
Search: happy people law
Returns: Papers with happy and people and law contained in the title, abstract and keywords fields, not necessarily together or in that order
Title Select Title Only radio button to limit the search to the Title field only Author:
All of these names independent
of order ("AND" condition)
among ALL of the co-authors
Enter an author's name in the Author(s) field. Note: SSRN searches a field which contains all of the co-author names, which allows you to search for single authors or multiple authors using a space between the names. If you do not locate the author you are searching for on the initial search, you may use the Search Within Results box on the top left of the results page to further filter your results, or go back to the Search page to narrow or expand your name search.
Single author search:
Returns: Results of papers written by any author who has a first, last or middle name of Smith
Search: John Smith
Returns: Results of papers written by any author or set of co-authors whose names contain first, last or middle names of John AND Smith
Multiple author search:
Search: Smith Jones Brown
Returns: Results of papers written by any author or set of co-authors whose names contain first, last or middle names of Smith AND Jones AND Brown.
Date Select date range from the drop-down list to limit results Networks Select "Modify" to choose one or more subject area networks to include in the search
"eJournal or Topic" Access to the eLibrary:
If you click the "Journal or Topic" Access to the eLibrary on the top left side of the eLibrary Search page, you are brought to SSRN's Browse page. You can also access this page by clicking on the "Browse" icon in the grey bar in the page header. This Browse page contains the SSRN expandable subject area tree. You are initially viewing the research Networks in the SSRN eLibrary. In grey text following each name are the number of papers included in each Network. Clicking on the "+" sign next to a network opens a view of the next level of the hierarchy. You can continue to open up lower levels of the hierarchy by clicking on a next visible "+" sign. At any level below a top-level Network you can click on the title to view the list of papers in that subject area, sorted by descending date posted. You can re-sort the results using the drop down menu, which provides options to re-sort by abstract title A to Z or Z to A, ascending and descending download counts and ascending date posted. You can also use the "Search Within Results" to further refine the results. For more information see What is "Search Within Results"?
Located within the button next to each level of the Subject Area Hierarchy are details for each subject matter area: Classification descriptions, links to Top Downloaded Papers, Most Recent Papers, a Sample eJournal, and a link to Submit a Paper.
"The Journal of Economic Literature JEL Topic List" Access to the eLibrary:
If you click the "JEL Topic List" Access to the eLibrary on the top left side of the eLibrary Search page, you are brought to SSRN's Browse JEL Classification Codes page. The JEL codes (Journal of Economic Literature Classification System) are listed here and you can access the list of the papers in the SSRN eLibrary that the author tagged with one or more JEL codes. You can click on the JEL code in which you are interested to view the list of papers tagged with that code by the author, sorted by descending date posted. Once the list of papers has been returned, you can resort the results using the hot-links on the left side of the page under the title "Sort by" which provides options to re-sort by download counts, and abstract title A to Z or Z to A.
3. What is Full Text search (beta version)? ↑ back to top
On the search page in the Advanced Search section, you may select to search on Title only; Title, Abstract & Keywords; or Title, Abstract, Keywords & Full Text (beta).
If you select the radio button for Title, Abstract, Keywords & Full Text (beta), whatever you type in the search term field will be searched for as an exact match. If you search "big data", it will search all titles, abstracts, keywords and the full text PDF file for instances where "big" and "data" occur next to each other. The search results by default are ordered based on the downloads of the papers, but you may resort the results by clicking in the "Sort By" drop down list and selecting a different sort option. You may also use the "Search Within" feature on the page to narrow your results by entering additional search criteria in the "Search Within Results" field. We do not yet offer the ability to know how many times the term or words appear in the full text, nor do we currently offer a distinction between the relevance of the mention (e.g. is it in the full text or merely in the bibliography or in a footnote). Note: "stop words" (e.g. common transition words like "a", "on", "in", "of", "or", "if", "to", "the", out","into", etc) are generally not included in the search. Therefore, the search for "into thin air" and "out of thin air" both yield the same results as if you had searched "thin air".
An excerpt of the first time the term appears in either the abstract or the full text will be displayed. If the excerpt extraction tool is confused by something, for example a special character, or punctuation, or if the term appears wrapped across 2 lines, it will instead return the first few lines of the abstract.
We welcome your feedback on whether or not you find this beta version of the new full text search function to be useful and any suggestions for improvement you may have. To send us feedback, please click the "Feedback to SSRN" button on the search page.
4. What is "Search Within Results"? ↑ back to top
Search Within Results is a search tool for SSRN that significantly enhances your ability to find papers of interest to you on SSRN. It is implemented in two locations on the site: i) the SSRN eLibrary Search page and ii) the SSRN eLibrary Browse page.
i) How to use Search Within Results on the SSRN eLibrary Search page:
Search Within Results on the SSRN eLibrary Search page allows you to search within the results of any initial search.
To use this functionality, go to http://ssrn.com/search, and first perform a standard search. To narrow your search results, use the Search Within Results box that will appear at the top left with your initial search results. Enter a word, name or phrase in the Search Within Results box and click "GO". SSRN will search for this term or phrase within your initial search results in the following fields: title, author(s) and their primary affiliation(s), abstract body, abstract ID and keywords. A reduced set of results will replace your original search results. If you wish to narrow your results further, enter an additional search term, and it will search within your current results and return a further reduced set of results.
The hierarchy of your searches will display under the title "You've Searched for: " located beneath the Search Within Results box at the top left. If you wish to delete one of your search terms, click the red "x" next to the term. You can eliminate them in any order.
ii) How to use Search Within Results on the SSRN eLibrary Browse page:
Search Within Results on the SSRN eLibrary Browse page allows you to search within the list of papers that you get by clicking on any branch of the Network / eJournal / Topic hierarchy below the top network level in SSRN's browse list (the first level when the list totally collapsed). To see the top level browse list, go to http://ssrn.com/browse. At any level of the expanded browse list below the top network level, you can search the list of papers you get from clicking on the name of any branch or twig of the tree. For example, you may search the branch LSN Subject Matter eJournals, or drill down and search a more narrowly defined twig on the tree, e.g. LSN: Arbitration (Topic). This means you can search within groups of individual SSRN eJournals, an individual topic, a conference, Partners in Publishing Journals, Research Paper Series, etc.
Currently, SSRN is unable to to apply Search Within Results at the top network level (first unexpanded level of the browse list). We will be working to expand this functionality.
To use this Search Within Results functionality, go to http://ssrn.com/browse, then expand a network by clicking on the "+" sign. Choose any branch or twig that you wish to view by clicking on the name, and you will view all the papers included in it. You can then search within this list of papers by using the Search Within Results box located at the top left. Enter a word, name or phrase in the Search Within Results box and click "GO". SSRN will search for this term or phrase within the paper list of any branch or twig. Search Within Results searches the following fields for each paper: title, author(s), abstract body, abstract ID and keywords. A reduced set of results will replace your original paper list. If you wish to narrow your results further, enter an additional search term, and it will search within your current results and return a further reduced set of results.
The hierarchy of your searches will display under the title "You've Searched for: " located beneath the Search Within Results box at the top left. If you wish to delete one of your search terms, click the red "x" next to the term. You can eliminate them in any order.
5. How do I find further information (including an abstract) about this paper? ↑ back to top
If you find a paper that interests you, you may select the title. The Public Abstract Page will appear containing the title, abstract, full author contact and affiliation information, JEL classification codes as well as other information. If the paper is included in the Electronic Paper Collection, you may download it from the Public Abstract Page and the total number of downloads to date is given to provide you an indication of prior interest in the paper.
6. How do I obtain a copy of the whole article if it is available? ↑ back to top
Most of the articles in the SSRN eLibrary have the full text of the article available on our site.
Availability of the free full text article is indicated on the search results by this icon: . By clicking on the title of the paper in the search results you will be taken to the Public Abstract Page. There are two ways to view the full text of the paper: “Download This Paper” and “Open PDF in Browser”.
From the Public Abstract Page:
There are two buttons located at the center top of the page, and also under the abstract section:
"Download This Paper": If you wish to download the full text PDF file to your computer, select “Download This Paper”. If your computer is set up properly with the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader (available for no charge at http://get.adobe.com/reader/, the electronic document will be downloaded to your computer and will automatically open in your browser or Acrobat for your local viewing and/or printing. If you have Mac OS X, you may also use the built-in Preview application to view and print the PDF.
"Open PDF in Browser": If you wish to read the full text document before you choose to download it to your computer, select the “Open PDF in Browser” button. This will open the PDF file in the browser window. As you move your cursor over the document, a small toolbar should appear with the unique functions provided by your browser (which includes downloading the PDF file to your computer).
We have entered into a variety of relationships with the publishers to provide access to their fee-based research through the SSRN eLibrary. These papers are identified by this icon: . If you are purchasing a fee-based paper, you will click the “Add to Cart” link and be directed to your Shopping Cart.
If the full text of the paper is not part of the SSRN eLibrary, you will see a gray button “Not Available For Download” at the top of the page and beneath the abstract section. If you wish to contact the author directly to request the full text, you may use the contact information provided below the abstract. An email address is generally given for each author and a phone number or mailing address is provided for the contact author as well.
If downloading is prevented by the firewall software of your institution, or if you have trouble downloading a document and want it emailed to you, click on the "Email Abstract or Full Text Paper" button.
You may encounter an “SSRN Alert” page if SSRN’s Data Integrity System detects an unusual download pattern, either from a computer's IP address or for a particular paper. This notice can occur for a variety of legitimate reasons, including a user accessing SSRN through a proxy server or having problems downloading a paper. You can continue to download the paper by signing into SSRN HQ, creating a free account, or by downloading anonymously.
From an Author Page, and the Reference and Citation tabs on the Abstract page: There are two links located to the right of the title of each paper on an author’s Author page. The links will not appear if the full text paper is unavailable, or if it is a fee paper (where “Add to Cart” is displayed):
"Download This Paper”: If you wish to download the full text PDF file to your computer, select the “Download This Paper” link.
"Open PDF in Browser”: If you wish to read the full text document before you choose to download it to your computer, select the “Open PDF in Browser” link. This will open the PDF file in the browser window. As you move your cursor over the document, a small toolbar should appear with the unique functions provided by your browser (which includes downloading the PDF file to your computer).
7. Can I read the full text of the paper online? ↑ back to top
Yes. We provide the option to “Open PDF in Browser” in addition to “Download This Paper”. If you wish to read the full text document before you choose to download it to your computer, select the “Open PDF in Browser” button. This will open the PDF file in the browser window. As you move your cursor over the document, a small toolbar should appear with the unique functions provided by your browser (which includes downloading the PDF file to your computer).
8. Am I downloading the full text file from the SSRN site? ↑ back to top
We maintain all of the files available in the Electronic Paper Collection on our own site to guarantee their reliability and availability.
9. How do I download from the abstract page, and what should I do if I have difficulty downloading a full text file? ↑ back to top
Obtaining the PDF Document
The full-text document can be obtained in the following ways:
a) Downloading directly from the site
On the public Abstract Page, click "Download This Paper", and a row of buttons for our sponsoring mirror sites will appear. Based on your IP address, the system will automatically select the mirror geographically closest to your IP address and start the download process. The file will be the same regardless of which mirror it comes from. If you do not automatically receive the full text PDF download, please click on another download location icon on the abstract page. On a PC, you can then select "Open" to view the file immediately (it will automatically be saved to your default location, typically the desktop), or select "Save" to choose a specific folder on your hard drive and open it from there. If for any reason this does not work, try right-clicking on the button and selecting the "Save As" option. If you experience slow download service and/or you think the download location chosen by SSRN for you is not the closest to you, please click on an alternate download location to initiate the download.
b) Viewing the PDF in the browser
On the public Abstract Page, click “Open PDF in Browser” and the paper will open in the browser window. As you move your cursor over the document, a small toolbar should appear with the unique functions provided by your browser (which includes downloading the PDF file to your computer).
c) Emailing the full text paper to yourself
Click the "Email" link at the top of the abstract page to have the PDF emailed to you. This will bypass most browser issues. Enter the email address you would like the paper sent to, double check the address for accuracy, and click "Send Email". You will receive an email within a few minutes with the paper attached as a PDF file.
If you still have trouble obtaining the document, it may help to clear the cache (temporary Internet files) and cookies from your browser's history.
Viewing the PDF Document
It is recommended that you use an up-to-date PDF reader, such as Adobe Reader or Adobe Acrobat. If you have Mac OS X, you may also use the built-in application, Preview.
Obtain the latest version of Adobe Reader free of charge at:
Once you have installed Adobe Reader or Adobe's fee-based Acrobat program, it should launch automatically when you double-click the icon for the PDF file on your hard drive. If you are having difficulties with Adobe Reader or Acrobat, the following link should help resolve them:
If you are still having trouble obtaining or viewing the document after carefully reading the above instructions, please contact us by email: Support@SSRN.com or by phone: 877-SSRNHelp (877.777.6435) in the United States, or +1 212 448 2500 outside of the United States. We are open Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:30 AM and 6:00 PM, United States Eastern Standard/Daylight Time (EST/EDT). Please provide the following information:
- Title of the paper
- Exact error message you receive, if applicable
- Your computer operating system and version (Windows, Mac, etc.)
- Your browser application and version (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, etc.)
10. What is the charge for using the SSRN eLibrary? ↑ back to top
There is no charge to use the SSRN eLibrary. Members of the SSRN Community can access research from some the world's foremost research institutions within the eLibrary at no cost. Also, we have entered into a variety of relationships with publishers to provide access to their fee-based research through the SSRN eLibrary. See Fee Based Partner Publications for a complete list.
While fee-based research is a small part of the overall eLibrary, we believe that offering the broadest array of content provides the most value to our users. These databases of papers are fully searchable and access to the abstracts is free of charge. Since the publishing partners require a site subscription or fee to download a copy of their papers, SSRN is required to charge for downloading these research papers. These papers are identified by this icon: (a red dog-eared page with a "$").
11. What are SSRN's "Top Papers", "Top Authors" and "Top Institutions"? ↑ back to top
SSRN compiles rankings of Authors, Papers and Institutions in our system based on a number of relevant measures, such as downloads and citations. To be ranked, a paper must be a publicly available scholarly full text paper on SSRN; an author must have at least one publicly available scholarly full text paper on SSRN; an institution must have at least one author affiliated with at least one publicly available scholarly full text paper on SSRN. If you are signed in to SSRN or you have accepted a cookie, you have access to the entire ranking table. If you are not a known user, you will be able to view the top 10.
The importance of a paper, author, or institution cannot, of course, be captured by a single ranking. SSRN provides rankings based on a number of measures. These rankings are meant to complement other measures of a paper´s, author's or institution's scholarly impact, including the quality of the peer-reviewed journals in which the work is published. SSRN´s rankings can inform your thinking about the popularity and scholarly influence of papers, authors and institutions. They provide valuable data not previously available. However, these measures have important limitations. Use them carefully and wisely.
The date the ranking was compiled is shown under the title on the ranking page and the number of papers, authors, or institutions ranked is in the title of the Ranking Table. Most of the ranking tables are refreshed once every month.
Ranking tables can be accessed in multiple ways:
1) from the home page (SSRN.com, click on one of the "Top..." buttons located under our co-host institutions in the top center of the page).
2) from the "Search" page, or the "Browse" page -- click the "Top..." icon on the menu across the top of the page
3) from the links below
SSRN currently displays the following Paper Ranking tables:
SSRN Top Papers
SSRN currently displays the following Author Ranking tables:
SSRN Top Authors
SSRN Top Law Authors
SSRN Top Business Authors
SSRN Top Economics Authors
SSRN currently displays the following Institution Ranking tables:
SSRN Top Business Schools
SSRN Top U.S. Business Schools
SSRN Top International Business Schools
SSRN Top Economics Departments
SSRN Top Entrepreneurship Research & Policy Network (ERPN) Organizations
SSRN Top Law Schools
SSRN Top U.S. Law Schools
SSRN Top International Law Schools
A detailed explanation is available for each type of ranking from a link on each Ranking Table (called "Ranking Data Explained" in the top left of the ranking page). Links to three "Ranking Data Explained" are here:
Ranking Data Explained: SSRN Top Papers
Ranking Data Explained: SSRN Top Authors
Ranking Data Explained: SSRN Top Law Schools
12. What is a Top Ten List? ↑ back to top
We count the number of times a paper has been downloaded and rank them within different categories. These rankings include the Top Ten downloaded papers for All Time and for papers distributed in a SSRN email eJournal in the previous 60 days for each category. Top Ten Lists are available for all SSRN abstract eJournals and for each of its subject networks on the Browse by eJournal List. To view a Top Ten List, expand a network and click on button to the right of the name. Within the dialog box that opens, select "View: Top Downloaded", and a page will open which displays the All-Time and Recent Hits Top 10 lists.
13. What is My Library? ↑ back to top
My Library is a page that allows you to store your favorite papers on the SSRN website. It also contains a history of all of your downloads of free and fee papers. Fee papers appear in red text.
The My Library page contains two "tabs": "MyFavorites" and "Download History".
The "MyFavorites" tab is a virtual hard drive of papers created for you to store your favorite papers on SSRN, where the papers will remain downloadable unless copyright or other SSRN policies have been violated by the submitter. To add a paper to the "MyFavorites" tab, either select "Add to My Library" from a paper's abstract page, or select the "Add" button from your "Download History" tab.
Functions available from this MyFavorites tab:
The "Download History" tab contains a history of all of your downloads of free and fee papers. Unlike the MyFavorites tab, these free papers are available for download only if they remain in SSRN's eLibrary. Purchased papers will remain downloadable unless copyright or other SSRN policies have been violated by the submitter.
- "Download" Button: This will immediate deliver the PDF file to you. This button is available if there was a PDF file attached when you added the paper to your MyFavorites. The paper will remain available for you to download even if the author removes the PDF file from SSRN, unless copyright or other SSRN policies are violated by the submitter.
- "Email PDF" Button: This will immediately email the PDF file to you at the email address you have on record with SSRN. This button appears if a PDF file is available for the paper as described above.
- "Email URL" Button: This will email the URL link to a friend if you want to share the paper. This button is available as long as the abstract page of the paper is still available on SSRN.
- "Remove" Button: Removes the paper from your "MyFavorites" tab. If you have downloaded the paper, it will remain listed in your "Download History" tab.
- You may sort on the following columns: Abstract ID, Title, Collection, Fee, Date Added.
Functions available from this tab:
- You can choose the date range of the history you want displayed with the drop down menu located inside the tab —Last 30 days, Last 90 days, Last year or All.
- "Download" Button: This will immediate deliver the PDF file to you. This button is available if there was a PDF file attached when you added the paper to your My Library. The paper will remain available for you to download even if the author removes the PDF file from SSRN, unless copyright or other SSRN policies are violated by the submitter.
- "Email PDF" Button: This will immediately email the PDF file to you at the email address you have on record with SSRN. This button appears if a PDF file is available for the paper.
- "Email URL" Button: This will email the URL link to a friend if you want to share the paper with them. This button is available as long as the abstract page of the paper is still available on SSRN.
- "Add" Button: Adds the paper to your "MyFavorites" tab. It will also remain listed in your "Download History" tab.
- You may sort on the following columns: Abstract ID, Title, Collection, Fee.
14. Where can I find Professional Announcements and Job Openings listings? ↑ back to top
We distribute Professional Announcements and Job Postings eJournals which reach scholars, practitioners, and other professionals around the world. SSRN also includes the announcement or job posting on our site for six months.
Accounting Research Network Job Openings Announcements Anthropology & Archaeology Research Network Job Openings Announcements Biochemistry Research Network Job Openings Announcements Biology Research Network Job Openings Announcements Chemistry Research Network Job Openings Announcements Classics Research Network Job Openings Announcements Cognitive Science Network Job Openings Announcements Computer Science Research Network Job Openings Announcements Corporate Governance Network Job Openings Announcements Criminal Justice Research Network Job Openings Announcements Ecology Research Network Job Openings Announcements Economics Research Network Job Openings Announcements Education Research Network Job Openings Announcements Energy Research Network Job Openings Announcements Engineering Research Network Job Openings Announcements English & American Literature Research Network Job Openings Announcements Entrepreneurship Research & Policy Network Job Openings Announcements Financial Economics Network Job Openings Announcements Food Science Research Network Job Openings Announcements Health Economics Network Job Openings Announcements Information Systems & eBusiness Network Job Openings Announcements Innovation Research & Policy Network Job Openings Announcements Legal Scholarship Network Job Openings Announcements Management Research Network Job Openings Announcements Materials Science Research Network Job Openings Announcements Medical Research Network Job Openings Announcements MRN Leadership Research Network Job Openings Announcements MRN Marketing Network Job Openings Announcements MRN Negotiations & Dispute Resolution Network Job Openings Announcements Music Research & Composition Network Job Openings Announcements Philosophy Research Network Job Openings Announcements Political Science Network Job Openings Announcements Rhetoric & Communication Research Network Job Openings Announcements Social Insurance Research Network Job Openings Announcements Sustainability Research & Policy Network Job Openings Announcements Transportation Research Network Job Openings Announcements Womens & Gender Studies Research Network Job Openings Announcements
15. Jobs and Announcements Pricing ↑ back to top
Network Academic Org Cost Rerun Non-Academic Org Cost Rerun Accounting $400 $200 $500 $250 Anthropology & Archaeology $375 $190 $475 $240 Biochemistry $375 $190 $475 $240 Biology $375 $190 $475 $240 Chemistry $375 $190 $475 $240 Classics $375 $190 $475 $240 Cognitive Science $375 $190 $475 $240 Computer Science $375 $190 $475 $240 Corporate Governance $400 $200 $500 $250 Criminal Justice $375 $190 $475 $240 Ecology $375 $190 $475 $240 Economics $450 $225 $550 $275 Education $375 $190 $475 $240 Energy $375 $190 $475 $240 Engineering $375 $190 $475 $240 Entrepreneurship $400 $200 $500 $250 Finance $450 $225 $550 $275 Food Science $375 $190 $475 $240 Health Economics $375 $190 $475 $240 Information Systems & eBusiness $400 $200 $500 $250 Innovation $375 $190 $475 $240 Law $450 $225 $550 $275 Leadership $375 $190 $475 $240 Literature $375 $190 $475 $240 Management $450 $225 $550 $275 Marketing $375 $190 $475 $240 Materials Science $375 $190 $475 $240 Medical $375 $190 $475 $240 Music & Composition $375 $190 $475 $240 Negotiation $375 $190 $475 $240 Philosophy $375 $190 $475 $240 Political Science $375 $190 $475 $240 Rhetoric & Communication $375 $190 $475 $240 Social Insurance $400 $200 $500 $250 Sustainability $375 $190 $475 $240 Transportation $375 $190 $475 $240 Women & Gender $375 $190 $475 $240
To place an announcement or job opening or for more information, please visit Professional Announcements and Job Openings on SSRN.
16. What is Eigenfactor®? ↑ back to top
The author-level Eigenfactor® score is a weighted measure of an author's citations. It adjusts for the number of authors of the paper, the number of outgoing citations from each paper citing an author's paper and for the importance of the citing paper. All self citations are eliminated in calculating an author's Eigenfactor score. The score reported in the SSRN ranking tables is calculated from SSRN citation data only. To understand how this importance-weighting works, consider the following iterated voting procedure:
"Each author begins with a single vote and passes it on, dividing the vote proportionally based on those authors whom she cites. In other words, if she cites two authors - author A one time and author B two times - she would distribute 1/3 of her vote to author A and 2/3 of her vote to author B. After one round of this procedure, some authors will receive more votes than others. In the second round, each author passes on her current vote total, as received in the previous round, again dividing this quantity equally among those authors whom she cites. This process is iterated indefinitely. Eventually, we reach a steady state in which each author receives an unchanging number of votes in each round. An author's Eigenfactor score is the percentage of the total votes that she receives at this steady state." (p. 3) See West, Jevin D., Jensen, Michael C., Dandrea, Ralph J., Gordon, Gregory J. and Bergstrom, Carl T., Author-Level Eigenfactor Metrics: Evaluating the Influence of Authors, Institutions and Countries Within the SSRN Community (February 14, 2011). Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper No. 12-068 (Data as of March 14, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1636719.
16. How do I make a musical research submission? ↑ back to top
Who to send music submission/audio file to: Music@SSRN.com
When submitting an music/audio file, what should be included: Your email should include your submission’s title, authors (and affiliations), abstract/summary of the work and PDF (if applicable).
Audio file format & size: AIFF, WAVE (WAV), FLAC, ALAC, OGG, MP2, MP3, AAC, AMR, or WMA format, and no larger than 5GB.
1. What is a SSRN abstract eJournal? ↑ back to top
SSRN is devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of research. Each of SSRN's research networks encourages the early distribution of research results by distributing abstracts and full text papers submitted by scholars around the world in what we call our SSRN abstract "eJournals." SSRN's email abstract eJournals currently cover over 1,000 different subject areas, and reach over 400,000 people in approximately 140 different countries.
An eJournal is an email sent to subscribers, which contains up to 12 abstracts of papers that have been written in the past year and have been submitted to SSRN. Each paper displays a title, authors, and an abstract of the paper along with a link to download the full text paper (when available on SSRN). Click here to view a sample eJournal. The majority of papers on our site may be downloaded for free. The number of eJournal emails distributed to subscribers each week is driven by the quantity of papers we receive in the subject area - if the number of recent papers received is low, then there may be only one eJournal every other week. If there is a significant number of new submissions received in that subject area, you could receive up to 5 eJournals a week. We try not to overflow your email inbox and will split eJournals when they distribute a high weekly volume for too long.
Some eJournals are free. Many eJournals require either an institutional subscription or an individual subscription. You may sign up for a free trial subscription for eJournals. (See How do I subscribe to abstract eJournals? video below for detailed instructions)
2. How do I subscribe to abstract eJournals? ↑ back to top
Last updated February 2017